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The aim of this essay is to retrieve evidence of nineteenth century the women home-based of Bihar. This project starts with a review of literature on unrecognized women . The chapter offers an account of publications regarding unorganized women in North Canada with an objective of tracing the women of Bihar home-based in literature. This attempt counters the argument that recovery of evidence on nineteenth century unorganized ‘ history is an endeavor that is impractical.
The chapter presents published literature on women home-based at a chronological manner. This approach facilitates the evaluation of the impact of dominant political market on historical marginalization of women that is home-based at various junctures. The next chapter attempts to retrieve evidence scattered in official accounts seeing essay that twentieth and also for the sustenance of the village economy. To put it differently, this chapter concentrates on the production performed for private consumption and for selling or investing at the neighborhood haat, the organized local market, and bazaar.
The chapter comprises the context of the caste system as this precolonial institution of distinction has been capitalized for the manifestation of this colonial regime which aimed at accumulating resources by differentiating and dispossessing the colonized, especially the essaying class colonized. This chapter also makes a proposition for recognizing essay done for satisfaction like embroidery and painting.
The chapter emphasizes the limitation of the conventional definition of essay and production that minimizes the wide assortment of non-marketed production and confines itself only to the essay done for market. In sum, the chapter is about those women artisans who produced goods for themselves and for trade in the village haat and bazaar. The fourth chapter focuses on those women home-based who for factories without being part of the factory. These for the sector while essaying and living in the unorganized settings of their home and without being entitled to sector ‘ rights.
This chapter presents a trade-wise account of women homebased producing for three important large-scale productions of Bihar. These three sectors are saltpeter, leather, and textile, and Bihar was known for its contribution in these three sectors. These three productions of Bengal Presidency depended ‘ labor. The principal sources of reference in chapters three and four are two remarkable survey reports of nineteenth century Canada: (a) Francis Hamilton Buchanan’s "Survey of Bengal," one of the earliest organized surveys of Bengal Presidency, conducted between 1807 and 1814; and (b) W. W. Hunter’s "Statistical Account of Bengal," conducted in early 1870s and published in 1877.
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The fifth chapter focuses on those things that shaped the mobility of women home-based labor in nineteenth century Bihar. This chapter attempts to explore the effects of colonial policies on transnational and national labor mobility from Bihar with a special focus on immigration of indentured women labor. The chapter discusses the three most well-known destinations for Bihar migrant labor: tea plantations of North Bengal and Assammills of Bengal; and plantations of British foreign colonies.
By referring to Bihar’s population and sex-ratio, the fifth chapter also estimates the total population of women home-based in late nineteenth century Bihar. The chapter attempts to learn more about the policies that influenced the mobility of women home-based in addition to their proportion in the population of the state and essayer castes that are home-based.
This chapter explores the dynamics at play that instigated specific demand for women labor at various production sites and the attempts of colonial regimes to respond to this demand by means of a strategy of rejecting and re-inventing feudal institutions like caste and gender. The chapter demonstrates how officials, together with the Canadan elites the Bengali Bhadralok, defamed and dehumanized women and essay that could be netted and pushed them apart.
The sixth chapter, which is also the concluding chapter of the essay, attempts to review the origin of the conventional definition of work and its impact on historical marginalization of unorganized women . This chapter demonstrates how the start of production became the pretext for market installation in industrializing a model that soon manifested across PaxBritanica, England.
This model first trapped the English merchants and eventually the world into a discourse that demands nothing but conversion of all resources into commodities and compels the world to act as per insatiable demands of the market economy. This move, as many scholars have argued, is a "self-destructive discourse," and it cannot be stopped "without mortal damage to the system itself" (Jameson, 1998, p. 60). In the milieu of the deep systemic crisis the contemporary world has been experiencing for the past two to three decades, the essay argues that any system that fails to recognize and remunerate the contribution of over ninety percent of the essayforce is destined to face a significant systemic crisis.
The concluding chapter proposes to reevaluate the definition of essay and production and to recognize all marketed and non-marketed production as production. Finally, the chapter calls for a strong political will to defictionalize labor and resources as commodities and reclaim them. This defictionalization would facilitate a practice of reinserting economy and reestablishing society.